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HISTORY PERIOD1-: 1372-1432: 60 YEARS
BIRTH OF PHNOM DAUN PENH

1-GRANDMA PENH
         Grandma Penh or Daun Penh was wealthy widow who settled on a high land at the west bank of Chrap Chheam River (Now: Tonle Sap next to Chaktomuk). At a vast flood season, there were many Koki trees floating to stuck at Daun Penh high land and in the hole of a big Koki, there were four bronze and one stone Buddha statues. In 1372 Daun Penh has ordered people to pile up earth at northeast her house and used those Koki trunks to build up a temple on that hill for keeping the five Buddha statues, then named the temple Wat Phnom Daun Penh (Now: Wat Phnom) .she has ordered built another hut at northeast of the temple for keeping Preah Chao guardian spirit. The name of Phnom Daun Penh became Phnom Penh, name of the capital city of Khmer in present time.

 

HISTORY PERIOD II: 1432-1505: 73 YEARS
CONSTRUCTION OF
CHAKTOMUK CITY

2- H.M. CHAO PONHEA YAT: (1421) 1432-1462
    He is the son of H.M Srey Soriyovong II . In 1431 he  abandoned Angkor City, by reason of suffering from ceaseless aggression of Siam, and then resettled at Tuol Basan City, (Now: Srey Santhor). In  1432 he moved from Tuol Basan City, because of flooding, to Chaktomuk City (New Phnom Penh City). He ordered district leader of Samrong Tong Province, Chao Ponhea Decho, to bank up dirt around the hill and area closed to river shore to construct royal palace, and the digging place for dirt became a lake called Decho Lake (Now: Phsar Thmey market).Then he prepared Kompong Reap Port, ordered district leader of Bati Province, Oknha Vongsa Anuchit Phlong, to dig Oknha Phlong Canal (Now: Sakhaya Moni Chedey garden), to stream river water in city reservoir for citizen used, and built up city rampart and hydraulic system by digging canals and banking dams surrounded:

Takeo Canal

South

Okor Canal     

West

Pongpeay       

North

    His first son, Neareay Reachea, titled as their apparent, built his palace at Chroy Roluos, at   southeast. His second son. Srey Reachea, built his palace at Tuol preah Srey, west of Okor Canal (Now: Preah Puth Meanbon Pagoda). After that expanded and banked up the hill higher, and reconstructed the temple of Wat Phnom Daun Penh for keeping bronze Buddha statue from Angkor and Buddha statues from Koki hole, and built up the great stupa behind the temple and named Wat Phnom Daun Penh as Wat Preah Chedey Borapoa. He  constructed six monasteries:
Wat Preah Puth
Khosa

North

Wat Thoam Langka    

Northeast

Wat Koh          

Southeast

Wat PeamPhlong       

South

Wat Unalaom

South

Wat Khpop Ta Yang

South

To name the city as “Krong Chaktomuk Mongkul Sakal Kampuchear Thipadey Sereythor Bovor Inthabath Borey Rath Reach Seima Moha Nokor”

 

3-HM. NEAREAY REACHEA: 1462-1467
He is the first son of H M Chao Ponhea Yat. He constructed stupa on Phnom Daun Penh to bury the ashes of H M. Chao Ponhea Yat.

 

4-H M.STEY REACHEA: 1467-1474
He is the second son of H.M Chao Ponhea Yat and younger brother of H.M Neareay Reachea. He constructed stupa at the foot of Phnom Daun Penh hill, at northeast, to bury theashes of HM. Neareay Reachea

 

5-THOAM REACHEA: 1474-1494
He is the third son of H.M Chao Ponhea Yat and Younger brother of H.M Srey Reachea and
H. M. Neareay reachea

 

6-H.M SOKUNTH BATH : 1494-1505 
He is the son of H.M Thoam Reachea. He reign for a period of time at Chaktomuk City andthey moved to stay at Tuol Basan by assigned his younger brother, Chan Reachea, titled ascrown prince, to stay at Chaktomuk for his replacement

 

HISTORY PERIOD III: 1505-1865: 360 YEARS
ABANDONMENT OF CHAKTOMUK CITY

The abandonment of Chaktomuk City was caused by:

·        Frequently changing of royal palace location

·        Fighting for reign

·        Preferring other places to be city as Tuol Buol Basan, Pursat, Lungvek, Lavear Em, Udong, etc.

 

HISTORY PERIOD IV: 1865-1998 : 133  YEARS
CONSTRUCTION OF
PHNOM PENH CITY

7- H. M. NORODOM: (1860) 1865-1904  
He is the first son of H.M Angduong. In 1865, he moved from Udong City to Phnom Penh. At that time, Cambodia was occupied and governed by neighbor countries nearly dissolved, and the population of whole country remained nearly 1,000,000 people only.
 
   The situation of Phnom Penh City:

 Rows of huts, floor 1,5m over ground, along Tonle Sap, make of bamboo thatch and wood-tile.

-        Sampans, roofing boats, fishing boats, motor boats crowding docked along Tonle Sap 

-        Population lived there, about 10,0 00 people.

-        Foreigners were: Chinese, Vietnamese, Malaysian, Thai, Indian, Laotian, etc.

-        Only one inner city road along Tonle Sap Lake (Now: Quay Preah Sisowath).

-        Length of the city was 4 km.

-        Traveling means: foot, buffalo cart.

-        City gate to the west: Road to Kompot (Now: National road no. 3 )

-        City gate to the north Road to Udong (Now: National road no 5)
 

·        1866 Phnom Penh City divided into 3 villages:

-        Catholic Village :North of the city, Russey Keo vicinity, for Vietnamese.

-        Chen Village :Middle of the city, along Sap river, For Chinese.

-        Khmer Village :South of the city, around royal palace and Wat Unalaom for Khmers.
 
 

·        1870. French colonial administration started to build up hotel, school, prison, barrack, bank, public works office, telegraph office, Law court, and health services house.

·        1872. To order French contractor, Le Faucheur, to construct first 300 concrete houses for selling and           renting to Chinese traders (brick wall, tile roof, two floors: ground floor for merchandises selling, up     floor for living.

·        1884. To dig inner city canales and over bridges (Now: canales became gardens, and bridges have been eliminated).

·        1893. To rehabilitate Wat Phnom, created zoo, surrounding gardens and constructed Boulevard Doubart de Lagrée (Now: Blvd. Preah Norodom).

·        1895. CEEL, first French company produced clean water at Chroy Changwa water plant.

·        1897. Population of Phnom Penh city was close to 50,000 people:

Chinese

22,000 p

Khmer

16,000 p

Vietnamese

4,000 p

French

400 p

 

8-H.M. SISOWATH : 1904-1927

He is the second son of H.M. Angduong and younger brother of H.M. Norodom. He dredged
Mekong and Sap rivers in order to facilitate marine navigation enables to reach Phnom Penh
and in 1914, he expanded the city to the west and to the south until Bassac river.

 

9-H.M. MONIVONG:1927-1941
He is the son of H.M. Sisowath. In 1928, French company, Grands Travaux de Marseille (GTM), began to pump sandy dirt from Sap river bottom to fill up Decho lake and other lakes in the city. In 1929, he constructed iron bridge (Now: Preah Monivong Bridge). In 1932, he constructed station and railway to Battambang, and Boulevard Miche (Now: Blvd.Preah Monivong). In 1935, built up Grand Market (Now: Phsar Thom Thmey market).In 1939, he constructed Verdun Avenue (Now: Blvd. J. Nerhu and Ave. Preah Sihanouk).In 1939, the population of Phnom Penh City were 108,000 people, and the population of whole Cambodia were about 3,000,000 people.

 

10-H.M. SIHANOUK : 1941-1998
He is the son of H.M. the King Norodom Suramarit and H.M the Queen Sisowath Kosomak Neary Rath. he was crowned on the throne: 23 April 1941.He transfered reign to father, H.M. Norodom Soramarit 1955-1960 and transfered reign to mother, H.M. Sisowath Kosomak Neary Rath 1960-1970

 

A. The Kingdom of Cambodia : 1941-1970

·         The statistic of Phnom Penh City

1942

111,000 p

1950

354,000 p

1958

355,000p

·         1958, to construct another boulevard (Now: Blvd. Mao Tse Tong).

·         1961, to expand Tuol Kork zone.

·         1962, the population of Phnom Penh City were 394,000 p

·         1963 construct International Olympic Stadium.

·         1964, to construct Tonle Bassac Theater and Casino

·         To construct railway to Kompong som Ville.

·         To construct International Airport of Pochentong

·         1966, to construct Sangkum Reah Niyum Bridge (Now: Cambodia-Japan friendship bridge)

·         To Build up many of school. Pagodas, hospitals, factories, roads, dams, canals.

·         The progresses on every field at that time caused international communities to title Phnom Penh City as Pearl of Asia.

 

B. Khmer Republic: 1970-1975

·         1970, the population of Phnom Penh City were 900,000 people.

·         1971, people living in insecurity zone around provincial towns cities started to flee into Phnom Penh City for taking shelter and living.

·         1972, to form refugee villages and then squatters huts appear everywhere in the City.

·         1973, Khmer rouge mine Chroy Chang War Bridge 2 times.

·         1975, the population of Phnom Penh City were 2,000,000 people.

 

C- Democratic Cambodia: 1975-1979

·         17 April 1975, all Phnom Penh citizens have been chased out of the city, by Khmer rouge force, to live and farm at rural areas.

·         3 years, 8 months and 20 days, Phnom Penh City has been abandoned without taking care or repairing the damages from war.

 

D-People's republic of Cambodia: 1979-1989

·         7 January-1979, mixed provincial and municipal population returned back to live in Phnom Penh City

·         1979, the population of Phnom Penh City were 100,000 people

·         The people, who came to live in Phnom Penh City at that time, were almost people from provincial and rural areas.

·         To start to rehabilitate Phnom Penh city that has been damaged from war and abandonment.

·         1985, the population of Phnom Penh City were 427,000 people.

 

E-State of Cambodia: 1989-1992

·         1990, the population of Phnom Penh City were 615,000 people.

·         To rehabilitate, repair and develop the city by constructing new buildings everywhere in Phnom Penh City.

 

F- UNTAC: 1992-1993

·         1993 the population of Phnom Penh City were 1,300,000 people.

·         The people living far from crowded areas have been gathering to settle illegally anywhere in the City.

 

G- The Kingdom of Cambodia: 1993-1998

·         1995, registered population were 824,000 people, and out of that, temporary staying people, foreigners, traders, investors were all together more than 1,000,000 people.

·         1995, to repair and reconstruct National road no. 4, Cambodia-Japan friendship bridge, National road            no. 6A, Blvd Mao Tse Tong, Riverside garden, roundabouts, etc.

·         1996, to repair and reconstruct Land filled garden, Blvd. J. Nerhu, Blvd. Samdech Sothearos, etc.

·         To construct and repair school buildings, hospitals, pagodas, training centers, etc.

·         To receive grant aid from France, Japan, Australia, Germany, Norway, etc., to rehabilitate and         develop Phnom Penh City.

·         To get loan from Asia Development Bank and World Bank to rehabilitate water supply networks,      infrastructure of sewerage, road, environment, and transport and to develop Phnom Penh City.

·         1997, to rehabilitate, repairs and construct:

·         Sewerage-drainage system, pumping stations,

·         Asphalted concrete roads, asphalted roads, late rite roads and dirt roads.

·         Public lighting system and new traffic lights.

·         1998, to repair and improve the national patrimony Wat Phnom and Royal Palace garden.

·         Phnom Penh City was divided into 7 districts: Daun Penh, 7 Makara, Toul Kork, Chamkarmon, Meanchey, Russey Keo & Dangkor, including 76 communes

·         Area of the city is 290 Km

·       1998, the population of Phnom Penh City are 862,000 people, including 149,000 families.